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Test ID: NAS Sodium, Serum


Necessary Information


Patient's age and sex are required.



Specimen Required


Container/Tube: 

Preferred: Serum gel

Acceptable: Red top

Specimen Volume: 0.5 mL

Collection Instructions:

1. Serum gel tubes should be centrifuged within 2 hours of collection.

2. Red-top tubes should be centrifuged and aliquoted within 2 hours of collection.


Useful For

Assessing acid-base balance, water balance, water intoxication, and dehydration

Method Name

Potentiometric, Indirect Ion-Selective Electrode

Reporting Name

Sodium, S

Specimen Type

Serum

Specimen Minimum Volume

0.25 mL

Specimen Stability Information

Specimen Type Temperature Time Special Container
Serum Refrigerated (preferred) 14 days
  Ambient  14 days

Clinical Information

Sodium is the primary extracellular cation. Sodium is responsible for almost one-half the osmolality of the plasma and, therefore, plays a central role in maintaining the normal distribution of water and the osmotic pressure in the extracellular fluid compartment. The amount of sodium in the body is a reflection of the balance between sodium intake and output.

 

Hyponatremia (low sodium) is a predictable consequence of decreased intake of sodium, particularly that precipitated or complicated by unusual losses of sodium from the gastrointestinal tract (eg, vomiting and diarrhea), kidneys, or sweat glands. Renal loss may be caused by inappropriate choice, dose, or use of diuretics; by primary or secondary deficiency of aldosterone and other mineralocorticoids; or by severe polyuria. It is common in metabolic acidosis. Hyponatremia also occurs in nephrotic syndrome, hypoproteinemia, primary and secondary adrenocortical insufficiency, and congestive heart failure. Symptoms of hyponatremia are a result of brain swelling and range from weakness to seizures, coma, and death.

 

Hypernatremia (high sodium) is often attributable to excessive loss of sodium-poor body fluids. Hypernatremia is often associated with hypercalcemia and hypokalemia and is seen in liver disease, cardiac failure, pregnancy, burns, and osmotic diuresis. Other causes include decreased production of antidiuretic hormone (ADH; also known as vasopressin) or decreased tubular sensitivity to the hormone (ie, diabetes insipidus), inappropriate forms of parenteral therapy with saline solutions, or high salt intake without corresponding intake of water. Hypernatremia occurs in dehydration, increased renal sodium conservation in hyperaldosteronism, Cushing syndrome, and diabetic acidosis. Severe hypernatremia may be associated with volume contraction, lactic acidosis, and increased hematocrit. Symptoms of hypernatremia range from thirst to confusion, irritability, seizures, coma, and death.

Reference Values

<1 year: not established

≥1 year: 135-145 mmol/L

Interpretation

Symptoms of hyponatremia depend primarily upon the rate of change in sodium concentration, rather than the absolute level. Typically, sodium values less than 120 mEq/L result in weakness; values less than 100 mEq/L result in bulbar or pseudobulbar palsy; and values between 90 and 105 mEq/L result in severe signs and symptoms of neurological impairment.

 

Symptoms associated with hypernatremia depend upon the degree of hyperosmolality present.

Clinical Reference

Tietz Textbook of Clinical Chemistry. Edited by CA Burtis, ER Ashwood. WB Saunders Company. Philadelphia, PA, 1994

Day(s) and Time(s) Performed

Monday through Sunday; Continuously

Analytic Time

Same day/1 day

Test Classification

This test has been cleared, approved or is exempt by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and is used per manufacturer's instructions. Performance characteristics were verified by Mayo Clinic in a manner consistent with CLIA requirements.

CPT Code Information

84295

LOINC Code Information

Test ID Test Order Name Order LOINC Value
NAS Sodium, S 2951-2

 

Result ID Test Result Name Result LOINC Value
NAS Sodium, S 2951-2
Mayo Clinic Laboratories | Cardiology Catalog Additional Information:

mml-heart-failure